These diets can be deficient in fiber & resistant starch and therefore, low in butyrate if proper dietary guidelines are not followed. When a paleo diet is properly followed, an individual should be consuming between 9-12 cups of phytonutrient and fiber rich plant foods including, green plantains, green bananas, sunchokes, artichokes, cooked and cooled potatoes, etc. in order to produce ample levels of butyrate. The problems arise when individuals focus on animal protein and fat while neglecting these plant foods/fibers.
9 cups of vegetables contain roughly 72 grams of fiber. Remember, we must also consider the health of the individual's microbiome. This factor will also influence butyrate production.
The ability for your body to synthesize butyrate depends on several factors. Dietary fiber and resistant starch intake are critical, but we also need a plethora of commensal bacteria to ferment the fiber that we eat and synthesize it into butyrate, acetate, and propionate. The state of the microbiome, the impact of drugs, alcohol, etc. factors into each individual's ability to produce short chain fatty acids like butyrate.
Chronic over nutrition via processed, nutrient void foods high in energy, fat and sugar is the norm amongst the majority of North Americans. This dietary regimen creates a situation where gut health is greatly compromised and therefore, butyrate production is greatly impaired. One cannot go wrong eating a nutrient dense diet filled with high quality animal protein and colorful, fiber rich foods.
It is important to note that most studies on butyrate are done via butyrate supplementation. Regardless of whether you are making adequate butyrate in the gut, we don't think you can go wrong by supporting your body with a top up of butyrate through supplementation. Butyrate supplementation has been showing to support a healthy gut inflammation response, improve gut integrity, inhibit histone deacetylase, blunt NF-Kappa B down, regulate activated microglia cells, and improve the gut/brain axis.